Solutions Beyond Sustainability

I believe everyone wants to do the right thing for the environment.

So it’s an awareness/education piece around what is the ‘right thing’ for the environment, why isn’t the right thing happening currently and how to change our habits towards the right thing moving forward. But how do we know what is the ‘right thing’?

A great place to start is the Trajectory of Ecological Design in last weeks blog post, where you can place almost any product or service on a continuum of negative, nuetral or positive impact. However there are some additional frameworks we can use to gauge what is beneficial to working alongside nature, as opposed to against it, and through that discover best practise for whatever purchase, action or behaviour which may or may not be the ‘right thing’ as it were.

The Natural Step use The Funnel to manage complexity and define future positioning. I drew up a funnel mapping the complex issues facing waste here in The Bay of Plenty, with each influence leading us closer to ‘the funnel’ which we will need to pass through in order to move beyond sustainability.

Funnel of Bay of Plenty Waste

Conveniently, the Funnel and the Trajectory of Ecological Design overlap really nicely.
The Funnel being a metaphor for sustainable development as a squeeze and regenerative development being an opening beyond the squeeze.

What I love about this framework is that it enables us to map complexity against the past, present and future drivers of change. Seeing these decreasing and increasing issues being pinched and pushed towards the narrow gates of a perceived future enables us to envision what would make it through, and how it might open up on the other side.

Another excellent resource for managing complex change has been adapted from ‘A framework for thinking about change’ by Knoster T, Villa R and Thousand J. For a slightly different, more clear verison, check it out on The Learning Accelerator

This table helps us identify what is blocking a project to creating change. By identifying what element of the project is missing (vision, skills, incentives, resources, action plan) we are able to conclude with an outcome. It is also possible to reverse engineer the table by identifying the outcome that you are experiencing and trace it back to missing element.

When we were unable to process the organic waste at Revital, the Compost Collection lost a vital resource. Following this framework to the fifth line down (where resources are blacked out) you can see this leads to frustration. When trying to revive the service, I experienced resistance (from myself) due to there being a lack of incentives (fourth line down),

Sustainability as a flawed end goal

A key message in the ‘Beyond Sustainability’ workshops I toured over summer is that ‘Sustainability’ is a short sighted end-goal, existing only as a knife edge between ‘Degeneration’ and ‘Regeneration’. A great way to understand this is through Bill Reed’s Trajectory of Ecological Design

In short, to sustain a flawed system would only perpetuate flawed outcomes. It is essential for future-sound solutions to be designed to a benchmark beyond sustainability.

This framework is good for:
– mapping and describing trends
– auditing behaviour as degenerative or regenerative

Here’s the same framework, spiralling vertically.

Take, Make, Waste describes our linear economy. Conventional and deeply degenerate. Desperately needing to shake the waste industries’ response, which for decades has been to cram societies waste into landfills as cheaply and invisibly as possible. ‘Out of sight, out of mind’ seemed to be the mandate from previous generations. However as awareness and education over the last few decades bear fruit, the obsolescence of the dominant methodology is increasingly revealed. While the lowest hanging fruit has long been harvested by the private sector, governing bodies respond to the more difficult challenges at glacial speeds.

Why Waste was set up to contribute to the shift of our waste industry away from its’ present conventional mode (far left on this framework) and bring it further towards the right. Our initial offering, the Compost Collection, was loved by Bay of Plenty businesses and many were left angry, sad and frustrated when it ended in December last year .

But where would the Why Waste compost collection occupy this framework? It’s a tricky one to gauge; by getting biodegradable waste out of the landfill, we can start in the same kind of ‘Green’ or ‘Eco’ place as recycling would be. Seeing as it then goes on to return that material to the soil via composting – this might push it into a more Restorative place. However if that soil is on a conventional farm or horticulture block using herbicides, pesticides and industrial fertiliser it would degenerate down the spectrum somewhat.

Focusing soley on the outcome doesn’t take into account all impacts and unfortunately the methods for collection do not fare well. The externalised cost of driving around picking up waste for compost is largely invisible. From conflict in the middle east to CO2 emissions in the atmosphere and every social and environmental impact in between, reconciling the impacts of driving vs the benefits of collecting compost would be a stretch. Then again it may not be, due to the methane which compostable material produces when it breaks down anaeronbically (like in landfills) being 23 times worse than the CO2 being exhausted from the van. Metrics such as these can be difficult and expensive to define, and they often miss the point –
Adding and subtracting a few million carbon parts per million in the atmosphere isn’t going to change our linear take, make, waste culture, indeed, it threatens to justify continuing it.

There is a similar effect when considering the social impact on behaviour change. By taking their waste ‘away’, we enable waste producers to continue as usual without needing to address shortfalls in procurement or practice. The idea that cleaning up people/business/societies mess is in some part reinforcing that the culture of waste is acceptable. Further to this, it is to a certain degree ‘supported’ by the same operator (Why Waste) seeking to transform it.

This kind of analysis might conclude that while the action itself reduces waste to landfill, avoids greenhouse gas generation and builds soil, it might have a negative net impact in the long term. However we haven’t yet taken into account the following that we were able to build off the back of all the ‘hard yakka’ and ‘walking the walk’, presenting the bigger picture to a receptive audience over a number of different platforms. Using the compost collection as a vehicle for generating awareness, providing education, and sparking inspiration was an effective way to create a wider scope of impact beyond the realm of waste minimisation.

If the compost collection is analogous to Why Waste being at the bottom of the cliff cleaning up people at the top, then it could be observed that as time went on our voice came to be heard from the top of the cliff, which resulted in other people heralding the same cause. In behaviour change, these people are called ‘early adopters’ and we’ve found it to be a very effective way to identify these individuals and feed them information and opportunities for involvement.

To conclude, the action of the Why Waste compost collection could be considered ‘sustainable’, while the methods used were ‘green’ or ‘eco’ at best. Meanwhile the awareness, education and inspiration that came from that project could be considered remarkably restorative.

Frame taken from Happen Film’s feature length film ‘Living the Change’

A critical enquiry into our services

A reluctant watchdog in the sustainability world, I often wind up calling out businesses/organisations for greenwashing – or ‘eco virtue-signalling’ as I like to call it. It’s a total drag focusing on the negative, which is the wrong way to frame the discussion around change. Plus it takes up heaps of my time which turns out I can’t even bill them for haha.

What I’ve learned however, is that everyone has a different moral compass and that people often believe they’re doing the right thing, even if it doesn’t stand up in someone else’s opinion.

How can I encourage others to act with integrity within the sustainability movement?
My best answer: act with integrity and lead by example. In this case, running a critical enquiry on our services in the hope of revealing any hypocrisy, and potentially crystallising a new direction should the need arise.

In our ‘Leadership for Change’ course (with Otago Polytechnic), we adopt a range of frameworks to simplify complex issues and communicate them in a common language. By mapping Why Wastes main offerings across these frameworks, I’m seeking to see our work as part of a system – a valuable viewpoint when our perception is conditioned by reductionism and separation. Nothing is separate in nature, and the same is true of business, society or any other human organisation. Their very ‘nature’ is an interconnected web of relationships, similar to that of a mature ecosystem. That word nature seems to keep popping up, turns out we’re not separate from that either.

Stay tuned for future blog posts as we dive into a gritty audit/analysis of the true impact of our solutions.

Seven Sharp video about our community built Tiny House

Since Seven Sharp did this video we’ve had a lot of interest in our little house, people our age, people younger than us, Maori people, people with grey hair, people walking past, people who are actually homeless wanting to know how they might be able to live in a tiny house one day.

The article takes special interest in the method that we used to build the house initially. Over two weeks we had 14 participants come and live with us, paying to learn from the best Tiny House builders out about small space architecture and tiny house construction. We know three of those workshop participants who have built/are building their own tiny houses, so it’s a great way to spread knowledge and gain inspiration.

The NZ Permaculture Hui through Leo’s lens.

Change is inevitable. It’s what form that change takes that matters most.

‘Generating Change’ was the theme for this years’ National Permaculture Hui. Not just information, or even inspiration …transformation.

You could see it in the eyes and smiles of the people as they said goodbye, that something special had just occurred. A change in the way people regarded permaculture, regarded themselves in relation to the permaculture community and the future of the movement. Sometimes jokes get made about Permaculture being a cult – not the greatest analogy because unlike many cults, this one is drastically decentralised, critically underfunded, and struggling with succession.

Despite all this, the event sold over 200 tickets with an amazing turn out of Permies from all over Aotearoa. Other nations and cultures were present, however there was a uniquely kiwi and tangible sense of ‘us’ at this hui. The chance to be see, and be seen ‘here’ in the same place together, in a giant circle outside on the grass. The opening ceremony was led by our beloved dignitary Nandor, who’s invocation raised in us that very real feeling of ‘now’ with one another. Us. Here. Now.

My favourite part of the opening ceremony was the waiata, which presenced te ao maori early on. You know those real awkward lines in ‘Tūtira mai ngā iwi’ that most Pākehā people never quite managed to learn? Yeah well Poihaere called us out on it, and Tihikura taught us how it really goes. What I loved was that the meaning of those forgotten words were the juiciest of them all!

Whai-a te marama-tanga – Seek after knowledge
me te aroha – e ngā iwi! – and love of others – everybody!

Ironically, seeking after knowledge and loving others emerged as two quite prominent themes in the feedback. Comments were laden with appreciation for the “Amazing diverse full programme” and “Vast knowledge that came from presenters”, even to the point of expressing information overload and feelings of being overwhelmed with the depth of the content. My personal moment of overwhelm was during Tihikura’s open space session on the relationship between permaculture and the world of Maori. The story of Parihaka and it’s continued struggle for soveriegnty brought up emotions that I may have intellectualised in the past, but instead chose to sit with and feel in that moment. Gratitude Tihikura, you taught me a lot more than the words for Tūtira mai ngā iwi …but we better save that for another blog entry.

To me, ‘Me te Aroha’ or ‘Loving others’ is another way of expressing ‘People Care’ – a core ethic which sometimes permaculture projects fail to embed into their kaupapa. The feedback captured some great images of people care and community connection. Snapshots of “A great sense of community”, “Nice people”, “Such a well held space” to reflections on real life transformations “I feel like I’ve just been living in a village of 200 like minded people, of all ages, who all want to make the world a better place through sharing, love, connection, collaboration and cooperation. It was awesome. I felt very nourished and hopeful with so much energy for action and people just getting out there and making things happen”.

The juice!

A real challenge in curating the hui experience was to allow for those who’ve been driving the movement for decades, whilst still including those discovering permaculture for the first time; “the Hui was a very deep personal and transformational experience. It was my first introduction to Permaculture, but I resonated with so many of the learnings intuitively”. Of particular interest to me was to what degree the values I had invited people to nurture on the first day around inclusion, open minded curiosity, respect, physical and emotional sovereignty were integrated into the event; “I started to get in the flow of being vulnerable and authentic, moving through that fear of judgement which is often a barrier to my full participation. A big part of that was feeling safe enough to do so, and each talk I went to I felt the facilitators did an amazing job at holding space.”

Emma Morris and Julie Crocker facilitating ‘Making Permaculture Stronger: Going Deeper’

One of my contributions to the programme was ‘Permaculture Speed-Dating’, with the aim to build community by creating a sense of inclusion. By asking strangers meaningfully considered questions, we discovered a deeply moving, yet hilarious way to invite participants to let down their demographic-specific boundaries and catalyse discussion between people of all ables, ages and ethnicities.

He aha te mea nui o te ao. He tāngata, he tāngata, he tāngata

Damn straight it’s the people 😉

A compelling difference to previous Hui I had been to was how intergenerationally diverse those people were. In particular, a big group of friends in their 20s and 30s came along and injected a fun festival vibe that we hadn’t quite cracked at hui before. I’d kind of been rolling solo in the permaculture world and it had begun to feel a bit lonely, so it was extremely affirming to have my peers pushing forward into permaculture. With some satisfaction I reflected on my talk at the 2014 Tapu Te Ranga Hui entitled ‘Making Permaculture Sexy: Parellels between the principles of Burning Man and Permaculture’, realising that you never know which seeds you plant now will germinate later on.

It wasn’t just the younger crowd that were celebrated, audacious educator Steve Henry commented at “How graceful the elders were and how respectful the new wave of youthful focus is to the work previously done”. It’s true, the pioneers in our community have set the precedent so high, it is no wonder that the next generation have been hesitant to step up.

I felt at Waihi, the next generation did step up. I could be biased as an organiser and spaceholder for the event, but I sensed from the sparkles in peoples eyes and the excited, lingering conversations between young and old confirmed that it wasn’t just change that was generated, but hope as well. Hope that a key challenge for permaculture was finally being addressed – succession.

Many other challenges and opportunities were brought to light in the ‘Making Permaculture Stronger’ session led by Dave Hursthouse in his unique firm but playful style. Some observers were surprised to find an organisation so eager to critically examine and explore it’s own weaknesses, especially while having loads of fun and laughter during the session. As someone who is keen to let go of the old story of humanity – the story of control – whatever you want to call it, it’s refreshing that we are able to run these self-enquiries. The work we are doing with permaculture occupies a kind of ‘space between stories’, where we are trying to create a new story, but hindered by the conditioning of the old story. ‘Making Permaculture Stronger’ is an example of the questioning necessary to identify and address the weaknesses, the fuck-ups, the injustices or transgressions that have led us to this uncertain future. This vulnerable process helps us reveal the light of our dormant humanity from within the shadows of the old paradigm.

Making Permaculture Stronger

Anyway, after spending all day delving into heady topics and systemic issues, there was a dire need to cut loose.

The music of ‘Matiu te Huki’ on Friday night got people moving alright, I saw some super sweet dance moves. You know, those epic low down to the ground lurkers, the classic reggae skankers, your eccentric auntie interpretive dance movers, the sexy hipswag sultry dancers… They all showed up.

Makeshift Movements

On Saturday night we had ‘Makeshift Movements’ rock the Te Rau Aroha permaculture-transformation-shed, a local 7 piece band. Their performance spurred Tihikura to play some epic jams afterwards, and Mufasa ironed out the kinks for those who needed to wiggle some more before sending them to bed. People took the chance to connect on the last night, lingering over Charlotte and her teams incredible food, hanging in the chapel or in the hall chatting, laughing, snuggling, dancing, flirting. All those extra curricular community building activities went down, spurring feedback comments along the lines of ‘music and dancing – very important!’ and ‘Party night – so brilliantly good’ – all confirming my philosophy that the change ain’t worth making if you can’t celebrate it 😉

My main takeaway from it all? To see our society as a tree, and understand the pre-colonial settlement of our whenua as the roots of that tree. Since the hui, I’ve formed some beautiful relationships here in the rohe that I live in. I am seeking to learn their story out of curiosity and care in the hope that a contextual awareness can inform the way I approach bioregional biculturalism, and beyond that help transition Aotearoa into a new way of inter-cultural interbeing.

New waste statistics reveal compost to be most potent solution.

You may have seen the recent report on Greater Tauranga’s kerbside waste. It’s not a super great reflection on Tauranga presently, but it could pave the way for a more sustainable city going forward.

Myself, and a team led by local legend Marty Hoffart and the don of national waste minimization Bruce Middleton sifted through hundreds and hundreds of bags and wheelie bins worth of waste for a whole week. And while it wasn’t the sweetest smelling experience, it certainly is sweet to see the lessons that the wider community stand to take away from our experience. Check out this infographic:

Tauranga Waste Survey Results

Tauranga Waste Survey Results

The first thing you notice is that only a third of what we’re throwing away is actually waste (read: should never have been made in the first place). This huge 69.3% of our total household refuse being ‘divertable’ reveals that two thirds of so called waste is actually a RESOURCE that can diverted away from landfill and reintroduced back into our forms of production. This is a BIG DEAL.

The more we can cycle back into production – the more circular our economy becomes. The more circular our economy becomes – the longer we can stick around on the planet.

Another change in data from the 2013 survey is the increase in organic matter. Over half of what is being thrown away is biodegradable. This means that we at Why Waste have our work cut out for us, because funky food waste is our specialty. Daaaaamn.

Our main solution is the Commercial Compost Collection we provide, enabling BOP businesses to divert around two tonnes per week back into local food producing soils.

Our other solution is aimed at tackling residential food waste – the same waste as in the council survey. The idea is simple, if everyone had a worm farm in their back yard, 35% of the waste from the above survey would disappear. So we need to get people worm farming asap, which is a far better solution for you at home than removal.

For $25 a month, Why Waste will supply a fully functioning worm farm to you at home. Holler at or contact 0220664869

More info on our worm farm hire service here.


A new residential waste solution in the Bay!

Over a third of what we send to landfill is biodegradable. Organic material. You know, natural stuff that isn’t made in a factory.

Our big push recently has been to help businesses compost this part of their waste stream, and we’ve diverted over 100,000 kilograms of this stuff from landfill since we started our B.O.P. compost collection.

But this service isn’t available to residents, as it is in other parts of the country. So we get asked to collect compost from urban and suburban customers all the time. A beautiful demonstration that with a little bit of help, people are generally keen to do the right thing by the planet.

We feel that a residential collection isn’t the most appropriate solution to address biodegradable waste at home. It’s a bit of a band-aid, contributing to that notion that there’s this ‘away’ place, where things are to be thrown. I propose we use a more appropriate technique than microbial composting for this particular issue – vermi-composting aka worm farming.

Instead of charging residential customers $11 per bin to take their biodegradable waste away (like we do with businesses), I propose to close the loop and provide a service where people can be be part of the solution, processing their waste on site for half of that cost per week.

For $25 a month, Why Waste will supply a fully functioning worm farm which can not only divert a households’ food scraps from landfill but convert it into the best fertiliser there is – for them to use at home or to donate to our community garden partners.

The worm farm hire service would include regular visits by a professional vermicomposting expert, yours truly 🙂

The Hungry Bin is our chosen worm farm, and it’s the best there is. Designed and made here in New Zealand, the Hungry Bin is streets ahead of any other type of worm farm – we know cos we’ve got them all up and running at our Permaculture Paradise in Te Puna.

hungry bin

Hot water compost …Free energy from biological processes.

Two weeks ago we made a hot aerobic compost. But it was no ordinary compost… We wanted to explore whether we could attain heat from purely biological processes – in other words, infinitely sustainable processes.


Jean Pain building a compost heap

In the 1970s, French inventor and innovator Jean Pain designed a system which provided his home with free hot water and combustable energy using the heat and gas generated through the composting process. Using machines and the scrub he cleared from a nearby forest, he made compost heaps so large they provided heat for an entire year.

But could we build one without machinery and zero budget? How much material could we gather? How much water could we heat? Our experiment had to be realistic – how about enough water for someone to take a bath?

Turns out we got enough heat for four people, and we had to add cold water to get in! Even after going through the inefficient garden hose from the compost to the bath tubs, the water came out at 44°C. Damn thats hawt!

Piping hot at 44 degrees Celsius

Piping hot at 44 degrees Celsius


Here’s Leo running us through the setup.

The compost we built was originally about 3 cubic metres, shrinking to about 2 once it peaked. We scored a water drum from the good people at the Te Maunga transfer station and built the pile around it. We layered in the funky food waste from our compost collection with a variation of different materials, all contributing different elemental or structural benefits. These include: Hardwood sawdust, scrub and dead grass, horse manure, cow manure, leaf litter, clay, cardboard, old compost, new compost, fungal compost, lime and paramagnetic rock dust.

The drum set in place as we shovel organic matter around it

The drum set in place as we shovel organic matter around it

Why Waste compost collection hot water experiment

Building the compost around the water drum

There was also a hose running through the compost, but the compost got so large that we lost it 😛

finished compost heap rugged up to keep the heat in

The trick is to catch it at the peak of it’s heat profile. When a compost peaks, the heat inside reaches a high temperature point and drops back off. This signifies a lack of oxygen, which slows down microbial activity. At this point it’s a good idea to turn your compost to aerate it again. Because we were keen for a bath, we pre-empted our composts peak at 65°C in the processes of draining 100 litres of heat out of the compost. Not ideal, but the heat bounced back pretty easily. Worth noting that it is important to never let your compost get to 70°C as this is the point when all your thermophilic bacteria die and precious nitrogen converts into a gas and escapes into the atmosphere.

Jean Pain also captured methane from his compost, does that mean our next experiment can involve fire?


Food Sovereignty – the new narrative for positive change?

Today I want to write about food sovereignty. Almost all of the pressing world issues can be related back to food. I feel it could serve as the narrative which unites the many problems that face not only humanity, but the planet which supports us. The latter consideration might seem a bit idealistic, even altruistic. However any issues which impact the environment will inevitably wind up facing humanity – so if we approach this from a selfish mindset, so be it.

For a long time I used the term ‘food sovereignty’ interchangeably with ‘food security’, wrongly so. Food security was defined at the 1996 World Food Summit to “exist when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”

While I believe the idea of everyone having access to adequate nutrition is a great start, I feel this definition is inherently one-dimensional. It also reeks of neo-liberal consumerism, paying no heed to the future, let alone the plethora of different issues we face right now of equal or more importance than meeting people’s “food preferences for an active and healthy life”

‘Food sovereignty’ takes a more multidimensional approach to addressing a much larger discussion. It holds that people have the right to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and the right to define their own food and agriculture systems. In essence, food security fits within the linear ‘take-make-waste’ economy, while food sovereignty can be applied to the rapidly emerging alternative – the circular economy.

In pictures, you could say that food security holds that food is this:

Screen Shot 2013-11-14 at 2.57.14 PM


While food sovereignty sees it as this (yup, that’s my backyard):

20140828_152122 (1)

What we eat and the way we eat has so many threads which weave into the socio-economic and environmental fabric of our lives. The story of food reveals so many points in the corporate food system that which expose entire industries which needs redesigning.

The production of food – Transportation – Storage – Wholesaling – Marketing – Retailing – Preparation – Consumption – Disposal of food.

The last of these is no less important to the first and, indeed, is intrinsically linked. The Why Waste compost collection was started because it absolutely had to happen. Before Why Waste, Bay of Plenty businesses had no choice but to send their biodegradable waste to landfill. If you’d like to read about the compost collection, check out our website, however disposal is but one of many crucial threads in the story of our food. The Why Waste project aims to contribute to the wider sociocultural and economic changes we need to make in order to continue to live on this planet.

Stay tuned to hear about the Rock Garden Papamoa, a multi-acre guerrilla garden we’re helping transition into a community hub for knowledge and nutrition. Feel free to like or share this post, hit up Why Waste on Facebook to keep up to date with great news on positive change.

Worm farming & compost workshop at Creative Tauranga

I’ve always had an unnatural attraction to worms, microbes and fungi.

Earthworms are the strong, silent type. They’re that enduring romance which crept up on you from the friendzone to become your soulmate for life. Tiger worms are that hot and firey fling. Hungry and ravenous, devouring everything in their paths and reproducing at the soonest sniff at an overripe avocado. Microbes take the sex analogy to an exponential level, turning your otherwise innocent compost into an orgy of binary fission to a factor in the billions. Fungi is that tantric yogi with the silver ponytail. Stretching itself into the craziest shapes and communicating with the universe through delicate strands of conscious mycelium.


On a more practical level, without earthworms filtering and aerating our soils the earths crust could not support life. Without the microbes in my compost, what I manage to grow at the beach would be impossible and the rubbish bill would be out of control if it weren’t for the tiger worms in my worm bin.

As a waste management tool you can’t get any better than processing your biodegradable waste at home. It might contradict the idea of the Why Waste compost collection, but it’s true. Whether a good old compost heap satisfies all your needs, or you might prefer the more compact-but-less complicated option of a worm farm will. Maybe you eat a lot of meat and need to adopt the Japanese method of Bokashi fermentation, which gets through bones in a matter of days.

On Monday I presented these solutions at Creative Tauranga Charitable Trust to a curious few who braved cyclone Pam to come to the Sustainable Backyards workshop.

We went over1900705_850125711718087_6982964960855500040_o(1) the different types of composting and vermi-composting, fermentation and digestion of biodegradable waste. Speaking from my own discovery of these extremely efficient solutions, I aimed to inspire as opposed to outright educate. Making sure we covered the environmental and economic benefits and pitfalls of each option, I really wanted to present the workshop in respect of the time pressures and financial confines we all live with. Using different worm bins I have as demonstrations, we went over vermicasting options – from the cheap but not ideal worms-r-us stacker bin ($100 without worms from Bunnings) option through to the Rolls Royce of worm farms, the continuous flow Hungry Bin ($320 or $340 with worms through I feel as though attendees took away a sound understanding of composting and worm farming (otherwise known as vermi-composting) and a good idea on how to set these up at home for as cheap as possible.


Thanks to Creative Tauranga for hosting the workshop, and also for supporting creativity in the Bay of Plenty. Creativity and sustainability go hand in hand and I am extremely passionate about both.